Cholesterol and triglycerides are vital fats our body uses to produce cell membranes, store energy, absorb fat-soluble vitamins and produce hormones. These fats are so essential that our body even produces cholesterol itself. This cholesterol is then transported and made available for cell growth all over the body via the bloodstream. In this manner, our body produces about 70% of the cholesterol it needs itself. The other 30% comes from what we eat.

The amount of cholesterol in your bloodstream goes up after every meal. To control this, your body has strict regulatory processes that maintain your blood cholesterol at normal levels. If there is too much cholesterol in your bloodstream, your body transports HDL to your liver, which filters it from your blood, lowering your cholesterol level. However, the liver will release LDL cholesterol into your bloodstream, which increases your cholesterol level. High cholesterol levels may cause arteriosclerosis, and so a low cholesterol level helps you stay healthy.

Because of this, HDL cholesterol—the kind transported to the liver–is called “good” cholesterol, whereas LDL cholesterol which the liver emits into the bloodstream–is called “bad” cholesterol.

That is why it is important for your health to maintain a high HDL and a low LDL cholesterol level.

A number of genes are responsible for regulating cholesterol and triglyceride levels or for increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. If you carry an adverse trait in one or more of these genes, you should pay special attention to your fat intake and metabolism. Since the diet is the most significant influence on your body’s lipid metabolism, it is important to follow a diet tailored to your genes.

Arrhythmia

Long QT syndrome is a life-threatening disease that can lead to sudden cardiac death in people with otherwise perfect health.

The heartbeat is triggered by a recurring electrical pulse, which propagates through the heart. The time to initiate a heartbeat up to the point at which the cells are ready for the next heartbeat is called the QT interval.
If this interval is particularly long, it increases the risk of symptoms such as paroxysmal tachycardia, arrhythmia, vertigo or loss of consciousness. In severe cases, such episodes end in cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. However, most people with this condition have no symptoms until a life-
threatening condition develops. The symptoms usually occur during physical exertion or stressful situations. A resting ECG (a measurement of the heart rate in the resting state) and a gene analysis help to better identify the risk.
A long QT interval is usually not noticeable: more than half of the patients with long QT syndrome experience no symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they are caused by potentially life-threatening heart rhythm disorders that are signs of serious disease. Palpitations may be sustained (more than 30
seconds) or intermittent, and sometimes remain unnoticed depending on the following: the duration and pulse rate, body position and the general constitution, dizziness, loss of consciousness or even cardiac arrest. Thus, they may lead to sudden cardiac death. Since tachycardia occurs suddenly and usually during exercise or in stressful situations, the symptoms are often unexpected and observed because they affect our general state of well-being.

People with this genetic risk should take steps to minimize symptoms. The steps include medical heart rate monitoring in high- risk situations such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, morbid excessive weight, age over 55 years, extreme physical activity, and taking certain medications. If a prolonged QT interval is diagnosed in these situations, medical treatment may be necessary. Thanks to genetic analysis, you can find out if you are in a risk group and take the necessary precautions. Serious consequences such as sudden death can usually be prevented.

Relevant genes for cardiovascular disease

The scientific community has linked several genes and polymorphisms to a risk of various cardiovascular diseases. An analysis of these polymorphisms allows us to determine your genetic risk for these diseases as well as some other genetic traits linked to this disease.

cardiovascular diseases

LEGEND: rsNCBl = description of examined genetic variation, POLYMORPHlSM = form of the genetic variation, GENOTYPE = personal analysis result

Summary of effects

This analysis examines numerous genes that contribute to risks for several different cardiovascular conditions. Many of these risk variations are common, and almost everyone has some genes that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. If you have an unusually small number of genes that increase risk, your genes may actually reduce your risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Here you can see a summary of the influence your genetic variations have on your health and body:

  • Compared to the average person, you have a 1.7 -times higher risk of coronary heart
    disease
  • You have a high predisposition for high LDL cholesterol levels
  • You have a slight predisposition for high triglyceride levels
  • Vitamin BZ lowers your homocysteine levels
  • Omega-3 fatty acids reduce your HDL cholesterol levels
  • Aspirin does not provide protection from arterial thrombosis (Please note: Even if the use of aspirin for the prevention of arterial thrombosis is not suitable from a genetic point of view, aspirin may greatly reduce the relative risk of vascular accidents in secondary prevention)
  • Predisposition for slightly lowered HDL cholesterol values
  • Predisposition to increased QT—interval duration

Your risk of coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis and heart attack

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cardiovascular sensor

Nutritional Genes – Heart

Based on the nutrition relevant genes and the associated genetic strengths and weaknesses, you should increase or decrease certain food components and nutrients. These recommendations are calculated based on your genetic profile.

Your personalized recommendations based on this section:

cardiovascular sensor

Legend: GREEN ARROWS > this nutrient or substance is classed as being healthy for your genetic profile. Try to increase the intake of this substance. RED ARROWS > this substance is classed as being unhealthy for your genetic profile. Try to reduce your intake of the substance. NO ARROWS > The genetics of this section has no effect on the nutrient. PLEASE NOTE! This interpretation only considers your genetic profile of this section.

Nutritional Genes – Blood

Based on the nutrition relevant genes and the associated genetic strengths and weaknesses, you should increase or decrease certain food components and nutrients. These recommendations are calculated based on your genetic profile.

Your personalized recommendations based on this section:

cardiovascular sensor

Legend: GREEN ARROWS > this nutrient or substance is classed as being healthy for your genetic profile. Try to increase the intake of this substance. RED ARROWS > this substance is classed as being unhealthy for your genetic profile. Try to reduce your intake of the substance. N0 ARROWS > The genetics of this section has no effect on the nutrient. PLEASE NOTE! This interpretation only considers your genetic profile of this section.

Nutritional Genes -Vitamin B2

Based on the nutrition relevant genes and the associated genetic strengths and weaknesses, you should increase or decrease certain food components and nutrients. These recommendations are calculated based on your genetic profile.

Your personalized recommendations based on this section:

cardiovascular sensor

Legend: GREEN ARROWS > this nutrient or substance is classed as being healthy for your genetic profile. Try to increase the intake of this substance. RED ARROWS > this substance is classed as being unhealthy for your genetic profile. Try to reduce your intake of the substance. NO ARROWS > The genetics of this section has no effect on the nutrient. PLEASE NOTE! This interpretation only considers your genetic profile of this section.

Prevention

You have an elevated risk for coronary disease, and so it is particularly important for you to take preventative measures to reduce your risk. You should take steps to keep your cholesterol and triglycerides within normal levels. Discuss this issue with your doctor, and start an observation program based on your doctor’s recommendation. The preventive measures and treatment options for cholesterol and triglycerides are listed separately. Talk to your doctor about putting these measures into practice.

Preventive measures

  • Do sports or regular exercise. The best exercises are endurance sports (walking, Nordic walking, cycling, swimming, weight training, etc), and watch your weight. Ideally, you should do at least 30 minutes of exercise, 5 days a week.
  • Smoking greatly increases your risk for vascular disease along with its many other health effects. Quitting smoking is one of the most important ways to improve your health.
  • In general, eat low-fat meals (fish, poultry and lean meats are recommended, but fatty meats like sausages, bacon, and fat cheese should be reduced).
  • You should also eat only low-fat dairy products, for example, low-fat milk, low-fat cheese and low-
    fat yogurt.
  • Eat as little animal products as possible, and use mainly vegetable oils.
  • Eat fruits and vegetables multiple times during the day.

Omega-B-fatty acids

  • Omega-3 fatty acids are commonly recommended in cases of high cholesterol; however, because of your APOAl gene, Omega—3 fatty acids could raise your cholesterol levels. Phytosterols can be used as an alternative supplement.

Coffee

  • Coffee contains healthy substances, but the caffeine that is contained in the coffee (if it is not degraded by the CYP1A2 gene) may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. The CYP1A2 gene does not work adequately and therefore moderate coffee consumption (2—5 cups per day) is bad for your cardiovascular system.

Medical treatment is recommended when changes to diet and exercise do not lower cholesterol and triglycerides to a normal level. There are multiple options: statins, bile acid binders, fibrates, niacin (vitamin BB), cholesterol synthesis and absorption inhibitors. Your doctor will decide which drug is suitable for you. It is particularly important to take action to prevent heart disease because treatments followed after symptoms develop can only slow down the progress of the disease.

QT interval and sudden cardiac death

As you are predisposed to have along with QT interval, you should take the following precautions, to avoid more serious complications. For you, it is important to understand the situations that create risk and to monitor your heart closely.

If you are exposed to the following risk factors it is strongly recommended that you have a physician determine the length of the QT intervals:

  • ischemia (circulatory disorder)
  • Diabetes type 2 (diabetes)
  • Metabolic Syndrome (severe overweight)
  • Age over 55

If you are engaged in vigorous or difficult physical labor, your electrolyte level will drop. During these events, regular electrolyte level testing should be performed, to detect abnormalities and allow for timely treatment. Prior to the taking medication that can affect the QT interval, you should have a resting ECG should be performed. Talk to your doctor about your genetic risk and the medications you are taking. In the context of a possible pharmacogenetic investigation by our laboratory, a clue to a possible QT-prolonging effect, these drugs may influence the results. Your doctor should assess this based on your QT interval.

The following drug groups might not be appropriate:

  • Antiarrhythmics
  • Antiasthmatic
  • Aerosols
  • Antidepressants
  • Antimalarial drugs
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Macrolides
  • Tamoxifen

This includes the following active ingredients (arranged alphabetically):

Albuterol, Albuterol, Alfuzosin, Amantadine, Amiodarone, Amiodarone, Amitriptyline, Amphetamine, Amphetamine, Arsenic trioxide, Astemizole, Atazanavir, Atomoxetine, Azithromycin, Bepridil, Chloral
hydrate, Chloroquine, Chlorpromazine, Ciprofloxacin, Cisapride, Citalopram, Clarithromycin, Clomipramine, Clozapine, Desipramine, Dexmethylphenidate, Diphenhydramine, Diphenhydramine,
Disopyramide, Dobutamine, Dofetilide, Dolasetron, Domperidone, Dopamine, Doxepin, Dronedarone, Droperidol, Ephedrine, Ephedrine, Epinephrine, Epinephrine, Erythromycin, Erythromycin, Felbamate, Fenfluramine, Flecainide, Fluconazole, Fluoxetine, Fluoxetine, Foscarnet, Fosphenytoin, Galantamine, Gatifloxacin, Gemifloxacin, Granisetron, Halofantrine, Haloperidol, ibutilide, Imipramine, Indapamide, isoproterenol, isoproterenol, Isradipine, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole, Lapatinib, Lapatinib, Levalbuterol, Levoiloxacin, Levomethadyl, Lisdexamietamine, Lithium, Lithium, Mesoridazine, Metaproterenol, Metaproterenol, Methadone, Methadone, Methylphenidate, Methylphenidate, Mexiletine, Midodrine, Moexipril/HCTZ, Moxifloxacin, Nicardipine, Nilotinib, Norepinephrine, Nortriptyline, Octreotide, Ofloxacin, Ondansetron, Oxytocin, Paliperidone, Paroxetine, Pentamidine, Pentamidine, Perflutren lipid microspheres, Phentermine, Phentermine, Phenylephrine, Phenylpropanolamine, Phenylpropanolamine, Pimozide, Probucol, Procainamide, Procainamide, Protriptyline, Pseudoephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, Quetiapine, Quinidine, Quinidine, Ranolazine, Risperidone, Ritodrine, Ritonavir, Roxithromycin, Salmeterol, Sertindole, Sertindole, Sertraline, Sibutramine, Solifenacin, Sotalol, Sparfloxacin, Sunitinib, Tacrolimus, Tamoxifen, Telithromycin, Terbutaline, Terfenadine, Thioridazine, Tizanidine, Tolterodine, Tolterodine, Trazodone, Trimethoprim-Sulfa, Trimethoprim-Sulfa, Trimipramine, Vardenafil, Venlafaxine, Voriconazole, Ziprasidone

Attention: Never decide by yourself to discontinue a medically prescribed medication. Only a doctor can decide this.

Drug compatibility

Effect on relevant medication

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cardiovascular sensor

Please note: The right choice and dose of medication is always the responsibility of the doctor. Never make your own decision on whether to stop taking a medication or change its dose!

Legend

cardiovascular sensor

 

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