Diabetes is a common metabolic disease in which the body loses the ability to properly regulate blood sugar. The ability to regulate blood sugar declines somewhat with age and almost one in ten people in the industrialized world suffers from diabetes.
Sugar is the primary fuel for our cells. It is transported through the blood along with oxygen and other nutrients. High levels of blood sugar damage cells and low levels prevent them from functioning properly. Therefore, the body has a mechanism that precisely regulates blood sugar levels and keeps it in the right range. When you consume a large amount of sugar, that sugar enters the bloodstream. After a certain point, the body begins to filter the sugar from the blood and stores it. If you go without eating for along time, your body releases sugar from the reserve into the bloodstream. In this way,
the blood sugar level remains constant and ensures that all cells are supplied with just the right amount of fuel.
As we grow older, this regulatory process gradually becomes less exact. Certain risk factors, including lack of exercise, excessive weight, and certain genetic traits, accelerate this gradual decline in precision. In some people, blood sugar rises to levels that trigger a variety of physical ailments, some of which can be life-threatening. In this case, the condition is called diabetes type 2 and requires medical treatment. Diabetes is often accompanied by a great number of other ailments. High blood pressure, blood lipid disorders, neuropathy, blood vessel damage, kidney disease, and even blindness are all common effects of untreated diabetes. In order to prevent these secondary conditions, a person with diabetes must maintain consistent and regular control of their blood sugar levels. A physician is usually able to perform a fasting blood glucose test or a glucose tolerance test to diagnose diabetes.
In these tests, the patient drinks a large amount of sugary liquid and the doctor then measures the blood glucose levels, which show how effectively the body regulates blood sugar.
The treatment plan for diabetes depends on the level of blood sugar. In most cases, diet and exercise will keep diabetes in check. Sometimes oral medication will be prescribed, and in rare cases, injections of insulin will become necessary.
Diabetes type 2 is a lifestyle disease that is especially prevalent in developed countries, where large quantities of many kinds of food are available. Excessive weight is the most important risk factor for diabetes. Certain genetic traits that play a role in regulating blood sugar also increase the risk of diabetes in some individuals.
By analyzing relevant genes, your personal genetic risk of developing diabetes can be determined. Individuals with a high risk of diabetes can then follow specific preventative programs that will reduce their risk of developing the disease.
Genes associated with diabetes type 2
So far, scientists have identified several genetic traits that can increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. An analysis of all relevant traits allows us to determine your risk of diabetes as well as some other genetic traits linked to this disease. The following genes influence blood sugar regulation and are associated with the risk of diabetes type 2.
LEGEND: rsNCBl = description of examined genetic variation, POLYMORPHlSM = form of the genetic
variation, GENOTYPE 2 personal analysis result