Inflammatory periodontitis disease affects the gums and the jawbone. periodontitis disease and tooth decay are the two major oral diseases. More than half of the population between age 35 and 44 suffers from tooth decay, and about 20% of the population has severe tooth decay. Most cases result from poor oral hygiene. Tooth decay is caused primarily by consumption of refined sugar, but oral hygiene helps us prevent tooth decay so that more people have their own teeth during the older age. Since the age of the teeth is crucial for the development of periodontitis disease, this disease is becoming more common. 40% of the population older than 65 suffer from a severe form of the disease.

Plaque is constantly forming in our mouth from a combination of food particles, elements of saliva, and bacteria. If this plaque is not removed with brushing and dental care, bacteria breaks the sugar contained in food into acids that attack tooth enamel and cause cavities. Over time, additional material accumulates, which makes the condition worse. In addition to destroying tooth enamel, plaque and tartar penetrate the gums, while the immune system is fighting with their inflammation. This causes gingivitis, the persistent inflammation of the gums. Normally, the immune system can prevent bacteria from spreading further.
However, in people with weakened immune systems or other complicating factors, the bacteria are able to spread, infecting the part of the jawbone that holds the teeth. In response, the immune system generates enzymes and chemical mediators that fight the bacterial infection but also attack and gradually destroy the tissues. This powerful immune reaction causes the inflammation of the entire bone, which gradually loosens until the tooth falls out. Most often, the whole jaw is affected: because the tooth only begins to come loose very late, the disease is only diagnosed after it has progressed significantly. Periodontitis disease is caused by a combination of many factors, among which poor oral hygiene and certain genetic traits play a crucial role. Since most of the damage is caused by an immune response, genetic traits that make the response too aggressively, which can lead to severe periodontitis. However, the immune system responds only when bacteria penetrate into the tissue. This means that people carrying these genetic traits need to take special care of their teeth by avoiding several risk factors:

  • Poor oral hygiene with dental plaque and tartar
  • Tobacco use, since smoking increases the risk by 4 to 6 times
  • Infection with the periodontal disease from other affected people (especially within the family)
  • Tooth decay(cavities)
  • Mouth breathing
  • Gnashing of teeth
  • Unbalanced diet
  • Piercings in the mouth, lips, frenulum or tongue
  • Diabetes, especially uncontrolled or poorly controlled
  • Pregnancy, when hormonal changes loosen connective tissue, which makes it easier for bacteria to penetrate into the gums.
  • Weakened immune system, such as after a chemotherapy, organ transplantation or in the case of HIV disease.

If the disease is detected early, it can usually be treated very effectively. However, the patient must maintain good oral hygiene in order to prevent a recurrence, since people who have suffered periodontal disease are at increased risk of relapse. If it is not diagnosed and treated, the periodontal disease usually leads to loss of teeth, which causes aesthetic and functional problems. This genetic analysis will let you know if you have an increased risk so that you can take preventive measures and get regular dental checkups to prevent the disease.

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